The ready eye of Khalid bin Walid, who had not yet accepted Islam and was fighting from the Meccan side, saw the chance and attacked the Muslims from their rear. The Holy Prophet sa tried to call his people together but a stone hurled at him broke his two teeth and he fell to the ground momentarily stunned.
At that instant a rumour spread among the Muslims that the Prophet sa was killed. This further heightened the disarray of the Muslims who then ran from the battle field and took to the protection of the mountain. Seventy Muslims lost their lives in this battle compared with a loss of only twenty-three by the enemy. After a major victory at Badr, the Muslims now suffered a big setback at Uhud.
After the battle of Uhud, the two Jewish tribes remaining in Medinah, Banu Nadir and Banu Qurayzah, had a dispute regarding a mutual agreement. The matter went before the Holy Prophet sa who decided in favour of Banu Qurayzah. Banu Nadir resented this decision and, upon the instigation of Abdullah bin Ubayy, planned to kill the Holy Prophet. The Prophet sa escaped from this attempt upon his life and ordered them to leave Medinah. Banu Nadir initially defied this order but gave in after a fortnight of siege.
They were allowed to take their goods and chattel and were expelled from Medinah. Some of these people went to Syria while others settled in a place called Khyber where they continued their anti-Islamic activities. In the same year as the Battle of Uhud, C. The Holy Prophet had already started sending missionaries to the various tribes and this time sent six of his own Companions for this purpose. When these six missionaries reached the place called Ar-Raji belonging to the tribe of Banu Hudhayl, they were set upon by two hundred men.
Four of the missionaries were killed in the fight and two, Zayd bin Dathinah and Khubayb, were taken prisoners and sold to the Meccans who intended to kill them to avenge the deaths of their own relatives in the Battle of Badr. It is more preferable to me than my being with my own people.
Abu Sufyan was amazed at this answer and this display of love and loyalty by the Companions of the Holy Prophet sa for him. Zayd was beheaded. When the other Muslim prisoner, Khubayb, was taken out to be executed in front of the people of Mecca, he asked for permission to say a voluntary Prayer, which he made very short.
After completing his Prayer he told his executioner:. Soon after the incident of Ar-Raji, a man named Abu Bata came to Medinah and asked for enlightenment in the religion of Islam.
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The Holy Prophet was afraid for the lives of his Companions and turned down the request. But when Abu Bata gave personal guarantees for their protection, the Holy Prophet acceded to his request and sent with him seventy Muslim missionaries. When these seventy missionaries reached a place called Bir Mauna, the cousin of Abu Bara instigated the local tribesmen against the Muslims. These tribesmen surrounded the Muslim missionaries and after a fight killed all of them with the exception of one man who managed to return to Medinah. Although the Muslims were defeated at Uhud, their efforts to spread Islam continued with intense zeal, and their numbers kept on growing.
With the growth of Islam the city of Medinah started to enjoy a status which rivalled that of Mecca. The Quraysh saw, in the growth of Islam, a real threat to their own religious and social position among the Arabs. At the same time the Jews expelled from Medinah were instigating the Quraysh against the Muslims.
Finally, in the year C. This time their forces numbered ten thousand men and six hundred horses. A number of Arab tribes joined league with the Meccans in this battle. For this reason this battle is also known as the Battle of the Confederates. When the Prophet sa learned of this threat he gathered some three thousand men to face the enemy.
On the advice of Salman al Farsi, the Prophet sa decided to remain in the city and dug a long trench around that part of Medinah which gave an open access to the enemy. One side of Medinah had a natural protection of hills and another side was protected by stone houses and groves of trees. When the Quraysh saw this defence, they were perplexed. They besieged the city and tried to storm it. But the Muslims easily repulsed the attack each time. Finally, the Quraysh decided that the only way to enter the city was by making a secret alliance with the Jewish tribe of Banu Quraysh.
Since Banu Qurayzah already had a peace treaty with the Prophet, they refused this offer of the Meccans.
On their persistence, however, they agreed to attack the Muslims from the rear while the Meccans engaged the Muslim army at the ditch. This secret plot of the Jewish tribe was discovered by the Muslims who then placed some five hundred soldiers on the Banu Qurayzah side of Medinah to guard against a surprise attack from that quarter. Meanwhile, the Meccans were running short of their food supplies, the weather was turning adverse and a strong, cold wind had started to blow.
Under the circumstances Abu Sufyan raised the siege and decided to return to Mecca. Although the Battle of the Ditch was a major confrontation between the Quraysh and the Muslims, very little actual fighting took place. The Muslims lost five men while the enemy lost three. After the departure of the Meccan army, the Muslims turned their attention to Banu Qurayzah who had betrayed them during the battle of the Ditch. When Banu Qurayzah could not hold out any longer, they sent a message to the Holy Prophet sa that they would surrender but would like their fate to be decided by one of their allies.
According to the Jewish law the punishment for treason was death. Many historians have commented that the Banu Qurayzah made a tactical mistake in asking one of their own allies to decide their fate. The Mosaic Law was very strict in such matters and any person honestly passing a judgment under this law could not be too lenient. Many historians believe that if the Banu Qurayzah had entrusted their fate to the Prophet Muhammad sa himself, he most likely would have forgiven their excesses and, at the most, expelled them from Medinah.
In the sixth year of the Hijrah, the Prophet sa granted all Christians a revolutionary charter of peace. It was originally given to the Christians of the St. By the year C.
They were getting nostalgic and wanted to visit their homes. Also, many of the Muslims had not performed the pilgrimage since they left Mecca. In February C. It was the month of Dhul Qadah, one of the four sacred months when war was unlawful throughout Arabia. The three other sacred months were: Rajab, Dhul Hijjah and Muharram. When the Quraysh learned of the approach of the Muslims, they started making preparations for a confrontation and told the Muslims that they would not be allowed to enter Mecca and perform the pilgrimage.
The Muslims camped outside Mecca, in a place called Hudaibiya. At that time a rumour spread out that Uthman had been murdered by the Quraysh.enter
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This caused a great deal of commotion among the Muslims. Realising the sensitivity of the occasion and the potential for an armed conflict with the Quraysh, the Holy Prophet sa sat down under a tree and asked his followers to offer an oath of allegiance to him.
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They all submitted to it, one by one declaring their resolve to fight to the bitter end for the cause of Islam. The Quraysh became alarmed at this display of solidarity by the Muslims and decided to come to terms with them. Suhayl bin Amr and two other representatives of the Quraysh came to confer with the Holy Prophet sa. When an agreement was finally reached, the Holy Prophet sa asked Ali to write down the terms as he began to dictate them. This treaty between the Muslims and the Meccans is known as the Treaty of Hudaibiya and according to its terms:.
On the surface the Treaty of Hudaibiya appeared humiliating for the Muslims and Omar could not contain his feelings.
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He went to the Holy Prophet and Said:. The Treaty of Hudaibiya gave the Muslims much needed peace and calm in which to concentrate their efforts on the spread of Islam. The success of Islam after the treaty can be recognised from the fact that at the time of the treaty there were only 1, men with the Holy Prophet sa , but two years later, at the time of the conquest of Mecca, they were ten thousand.